Century of Higgs Boson

Nothing in this universe which don’t have its own mass. Yes, this is something like an identity proof of someone who assist one to give his / her identity whether in organization or in department. We have peculiar identities of persons and then we recognize every person’s real identity (except we know few of our acquaintance). Similarly, when we talk on the behavior of particles we are not sure which particles have mass and why it has mass? This seems a weird reality like a statistical calculation of particles (In Maxwell-Boltzmann Statistics) but this sounds good if we will move further to determine and understand about particles realm.

As we all know, Higgs Boson is an elementary particle in a standard model of particle physics (Higgs is named after Peter Ware Higgs, English Theoretical Physicist and Boson is named after Satyendra Nath Bose, Indian Theoretical Physicist) In fact, Bose was also renowned for his work with Legendary Physicist Albert Einstein and what we now termed as Bose-Einstein Statistics to find the two classes of particles, and the other are fermions. After this incredible research on statistical particles, Paul Dirac (English Physicist and one of the most influential contributor in quantum mechanics and quantum thermodynamic) coined the term “Boson”.

Satyendra Nath Bose:

Let’s first talk about the contribution of S.N Bose. His was a remarkably astounding as he along with Albert Einstein in early 1920’s gave the foundation of Bose-Einstein Statistics. But what is Bose-Einstein Statistics? Let me introduce you with this concept. Bose-Einstein Statistics is one of the two possible ways in which collection of a  non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy state, a thermodynamic equilibrium (A state where there is no macroscopic flow of energy)

(Note: Flow here is a mathematical term which means particles are in motion in a fluid)

In Bose-Einstein Statistics, they do not obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle and hence particles have integer value of spin and named Boson after being correctly describe their statistics.

((Remember: Pauli Exclusion Principle tells that it is impossible for an electron of a poly-electron atom have the same values of the four quantum numbers that are “Principal Quantum Numbers”, Magnetic Quantum Numbers”, Angular Quantum Numbers and Spin Quantum Number”. All are denoted as n, m (l), l and m(s) [m(l) and m(s), l and s both are the subscript of m]))\

Fig.1:

464px-Increasing_disorder.svg
Image Source: Google Images

The above diagram illustrates the disordered system in which slow particles mix together. As you see in first box / container. The barrier divides the two different chamber A and B, but when barrier is certainly break than particles inside A transcends through this barrier and mix along with particles inside chamber B and also particles in chamber B mix along with particle inside chamber A.

This shows the Thermodynamic Kinetic Theory of Statistical Mechanics and then Bose-Einstein gave the Condensation theory. This condensation theory is called Bose-Einstein Condensate of photons. See below diagram for explicit information about BEC (Bose-Einstein Condensation):

Fig.2:

e7_1
Image Source: Google Images

 

The above is the diagram that manifests how Bose-Einstein Condensation works at “Absolute Zero” (A point where a fundamental particles of nature have minimal vibrational motion, retaining only quantum mechanical “Zero-point energy” where motion of particles are genuine.

(Note: Zero-point energy is a lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system have).

Peter Ware Higgs:

However, this is a Bose’s realm where he played with particles world and also their complex classifications. But when we talk about Peter Ware Higgs, he is renowned for his theory on broken symmetry in electroweak theory (the unified the two of the four fundamental particles that are electromagnetism and weak interaction) could explain the origin of a mass of elementary particles and later describe as W and Z Bosons in peculiar. But, when we talk about symmetry we are curious to know what is broken symmetry? Broken symmetry is an infinitesimally a fluctuation acting on a system crossing a critical point (that is two ends of an equilibrium ends) decided a system fate by determining which bifurcation is taken. Interestingly, we cannot observe this fluctuations and hence this process is called fluctuation breaking (See the below diagram):

Fig.3:

Spontaneous_symmetry_breaking_from_an_instable_equilibrium.svg
Image Source: Google Images 

 

Symmetry breaking is very useful to play its role in symmetry pattern. After this symmetry breaking theory,  it’s named alter “Higgs Mechanism”. On 14 March 2013, the newly particle but tentatively confirmed a + parity and a zero spin. However, Higgs mechanism is accepted as an important ingredient for Standard Model of particle physics (where without any particles with no mass). Then this journey begins and what we today called a CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva midst Franco-Swiss Border) first suspected to be exist in 1960’s where collision of the protons as seen in diagram below:

Fig.4:

Candidate_Higgs_Events_in_ATLAS_and_CMS
Image Source: Google Images and Credit: ATLAS Experiments in CERN.

In this experiment, researcher endeavor to find an answer of the complex question and that is “Why fundamental particles have mass?” But its little excerpt was seen in 2012, when CERN researchers announces a discovery of a new particles and what they called “Higgs Boson” (where some predicted this is God particle). But how one can understand the Higgs Boson Fields or mass? Let’s see in the diagram below:

Fig.5:

Image Source: Google Images  (Note: Only for scientific purpose only)

 

The above diagram manifests how Higgs mass describes the “Field” and this “Field” is responsible for mass. Suppose some people organize a party where men and women both are invited. On that day, when all people are enjoying a party suddenly a beautiful lady enters in the party hall and some men get attracted to this lady and surround her where some are still have a little glimpse of this lady. Here one notice when lady enters in room she was alone and no body with her but when attracted by some men she gets a company. Suppose she is a particle and other men are “Field” and when particles get in touch with this “Field” it receives mass depends on “Field”. Though, I am not sure on this excerpt and also on Higgs Mass because it seems this is a little journey for particles not forever.

Higgs Boson is a living exemplary of modern modal of standard physics that shows how one understand universe not in a physical behavior but in a quantum behavior (Still uncertainty retains its glory). Hope, this experiment will lead us to that future that already exist without harming or dis the prescribed fundamental laws and principles.

For further quotes and Information on Space time.

Click on these links:

https://sunnyspace2.blogspot.in

https://creativespacetime.tumblr.com

 

 

 

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