Century of Higgs Boson

Nothing in this universe which don’t have its own mass. Yes, this is something like an identity proof of someone who assist one to give his / her identity whether in organization or in department. We have peculiar identities of persons and then we recognize every person’s real identity (except we know few of our acquaintance). Similarly, when we talk on the behavior of particles we are not sure which particles have mass and why it has mass? This seems a weird reality like a statistical calculation of particles (In Maxwell-Boltzmann Statistics) but this sounds good if we will move further to determine and understand about particles realm.

As we all know, Higgs Boson is an elementary particle in a standard model of particle physics (Higgs is named after Peter Ware Higgs, English Theoretical Physicist and Boson is named after Satyendra Nath Bose, Indian Theoretical Physicist) In fact, Bose was also renowned for his work with Legendary Physicist Albert Einstein and what we now termed as Bose-Einstein Statistics to find the two classes of particles, and the other are fermions. After this incredible research on statistical particles, Paul Dirac (English Physicist and one of the most influential contributor in quantum mechanics and quantum thermodynamic) coined the term “Boson”.

Satyendra Nath Bose:

Let’s first talk about the contribution of S.N Bose. His was a remarkably astounding as he along with Albert Einstein in early 1920’s gave the foundation of Bose-Einstein Statistics. But what is Bose-Einstein Statistics? Let me introduce you with this concept. Bose-Einstein Statistics is one of the two possible ways in which collection of a  non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy state, a thermodynamic equilibrium (A state where there is no macroscopic flow of energy)

(Note: Flow here is a mathematical term which means particles are in motion in a fluid)

In Bose-Einstein Statistics, they do not obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle and hence particles have integer value of spin and named Boson after being correctly describe their statistics.

((Remember: Pauli Exclusion Principle tells that it is impossible for an electron of a poly-electron atom have the same values of the four quantum numbers that are “Principal Quantum Numbers”, Magnetic Quantum Numbers”, Angular Quantum Numbers and Spin Quantum Number”. All are denoted as n, m (l), l and m(s) [m(l) and m(s), l and s both are the subscript of m]))\

Fig.1:

The above diagram illustrates the disordered system in which slow particles mix together. As you see in first box / container. The barrier divides the two different chamber A and B, but when barrier is certainly break than particles inside A transcends through this barrier and mix along with particles inside chamber B and also particles in chamber B mix along with particle inside chamber A.

This shows the Thermodynamic Kinetic Theory of Statistical Mechanics and then Bose-Einstein gave the Condensation theory. This condensation theory is called Bose-Einstein Condensate of photons. See below diagram for explicit information about BEC (Bose-Einstein Condensation):

Fig.2:

The above is the diagram that manifests how Bose-Einstein Condensation works at “Absolute Zero” (A point where a fundamental particles of nature have minimal vibrational motion, retaining only quantum mechanical “Zero-point energy” where motion of particles are genuine.

(Note: Zero-point energy is a lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system have).

Peter Ware Higgs:

However, this is a Bose’s realm where he played with particles world and also their complex classifications. But when we talk about Peter Ware Higgs, he is renowned for his theory on broken symmetry in electroweak theory (the unified the two of the four fundamental particles that are electromagnetism and weak interaction) could explain the origin of a mass of elementary particles and later describe as W and Z Bosons in peculiar. But, when we talk about symmetry we are curious to know what is broken symmetry? Broken symmetry is an infinitesimally a fluctuation acting on a system crossing a critical point (that is two ends of an equilibrium ends) decided a system fate by determining which bifurcation is taken. Interestingly, we cannot observe this fluctuations and hence this process is called fluctuation breaking (See the below diagram):

Fig.3:

Symmetry breaking is very useful to play its role in symmetry pattern. After this symmetry breaking theory,  it’s named alter “Higgs Mechanism”. On 14 March 2013, the newly particle but tentatively confirmed a + parity and a zero spin. However, Higgs mechanism is accepted as an important ingredient for Standard Model of particle physics (where without any particles with no mass). Then this journey begins and what we today called a CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva midst Franco-Swiss Border) first suspected to be exist in 1960’s where collision of the protons as seen in diagram below:

Fig.4:

In this experiment, researcher endeavor to find an answer of the complex question and that is “Why fundamental particles have mass?” But its little excerpt was seen in 2012, when CERN researchers announces a discovery of a new particles and what they called “Higgs Boson” (where some predicted this is God particle). But how one can understand the Higgs Boson Fields or mass? Let’s see in the diagram below:

Fig.5:

Image Source: Google Images  (Note: Only for scientific purpose only)

The above diagram manifests how Higgs mass describes the “Field” and this “Field” is responsible for mass. Suppose some people organize a party where men and women both are invited. On that day, when all people are enjoying a party suddenly a beautiful lady enters in the party hall and some men get attracted to this lady and surround her where some are still have a little glimpse of this lady. Here one notice when lady enters in room she was alone and no body with her but when attracted by some men she gets a company. Suppose she is a particle and other men are “Field” and when particles get in touch with this “Field” it receives mass depends on “Field”. Though, I am not sure on this excerpt and also on Higgs Mass because it seems this is a little journey for particles not forever.

Higgs Boson is a living exemplary of modern modal of standard physics that shows how one understand universe not in a physical behavior but in a quantum behavior (Still uncertainty retains its glory). Hope, this experiment will lead us to that future that already exist without harming or dis the prescribed fundamental laws and principles.

For further quotes and Information on Space time.

https://sunnyspace2.blogspot.in

https://creativespacetime.tumblr.com

What is time?

Space, why we need space? And why time integrates with space to give a birth of unimaginable space time? But, are we sure this is too weird or just an imagination of our mind? In this post, I will discuss “Space”, not matter yes this seems like queer but this is.

However, let’s start with “Space” (yes, I know you all annoyed with this concept) but this concept is so vast that never end, never. So, come to the point, “what if space exists without matter?”, think. I know, most of us say, space and matter is interrelated and some others say “space time” Legendary, Albert Einstein’s concept on space time but this is not. Reason is in “Quantum Particles”, here I am not going to bemuse your thoughts but try my best to understand the concept of space clearly.

1. Quantum Particles are responsible for everything even for structure of space which means what we observe / see around us is not a “Real Physical World” but a mechanics of quantum particles. This concept is too old as we heard from our teachers, mentors, read in books, also read in “Philosophy” and many other spiritual books also, that nothing is real. But, what if we say “real is not also real” then this makes different sense and we are grappling with our own thoughts and think, how’s this possible? But, this is and everything we see is a “dark space” that engulfs galaxies, universe, planets, stars, us (humans), conscious beings in the entire universe and even black holes and are responsible for black holes extreme gravitational field (will discuss in my next post).
2. However, we are discussing on “space” without matter. Matter is all about energy as we know but what about space (just a pointless particle) may be not, then what we assume for it’s existence? Some Physicists believe space contains energy and is responsible for everything including “Big Bang”, but how? Space is dark and we are unable to find “what exactly it is and is this in spherical in shape or without any shape? Even we cannot compare it with dimensions because it’s presence is different than others. But, wait here we find one missing point and that is “space is responsible for creating everything and is a big source of energy, but this energy is not that one which we all feel.

But this is something like “void” in which energy contains and its core’s radius is smaller than small candy and it’s surface expands just like a “Giant Stars” where its core’s radius shrink every millionth, millionth, millionth, millionth, millionth, millionth, millionth, millionth, millionth, millionth of second and give birth to its surface. But this surface is not only dark as we see but this is a cluster of particles that are billionth miles away from each other and in between these we see extreme anti-gravitational field (discuss in my next post). So, as t give a birth of it’s opposite cousin (Gravity). Which means first we have anti-gravity and then gravity.

In my next post, I will discuss “anti-gravity” and “gravity” concepts that relates with the “space” and also discuss about black holes original cause of existence. Hope you enjoy this post. Thanks!

Space time

Cosmology

Original Source: https://cosmologyexegesis.quora.com/What-is-time-13

Secondary Source: https://www.quora.com/profile/Sunny-S-Koul-Scienoet

What is time?

Void or Time Particles? Which one is going to be trouble-free journey of space? Well not sure, but this is definitely give little strain in our mind, don’t worry this one definitely make you more curious about realm of space. Let’s start with “Void”.

As we know, void is nothing, which means what we observe or see is just a darkness of giant mirror (at least our narrow abstract). We all observe a darkness everywhere something like “Black” which I am going to discuss in this post. From my previous post, I said about “Time Particles” these particles are responsible for everything in the entire universe and even applicable on space (that is darkness). But what exactly are “Time Particles”?

1. Time particles integrate with space (darkness) and give birth to “Non-Uniform” universe. But we are not sure “Why this happen and why these particles integrate with space?” Reason is in deep root of space where we say “nothing” exists there, but this is not. We are wrong with this “Nothing” concept.
2. In recent theories, some physicists believe there is some kind of energy everywhere inside this darkness and the cause and existence of the universe utterly came in it’s existence with the help of this darkness, which sounds good but not so quite. Here, we find something uncertain but what is that? I am sure this, this is existence of space (darkness). If we think space is responsible for everything and hence we create a different theory on it, i.e. we say space creates bubble somewhere inside it’s giant inflation (according to physicists, in recent theories) then we are wrong.
3. Because, we know space (darkness)is not infinite, it has it’s limit and also it has certain energy and radiations which can never be infinite. Then, can we say space “itself” is “time” and synthesis of particles that integrate to form a “Time Particles”? May be, but if this is, then we are not in individual space (darkness). After this (space) we have something different concept (beyond laws of physics and even mathematics).

However, there are lots of inflation theories whether it is apply on the universe or apply on space. But this is sure there is nothing which is infinite and we all are facing a “Multi-Space” concept where inflation is not linear (as I said in my second post) but is in form of “self space” which means these spaces are not necessary for matter but for “itself”.

In my next post, I will discuss about these kind of “spaces”. Hope, you understand this post clearly. Thanks!

Original Source: https://cosmologyexegesis.quora.com/What-is-time-12

What is time?

This post is all about that “Field” that has never be detected and yet is a hypothetical concept. This kind of “Field” is particularly describe with structure of space and yes it it related with every laws and principles. This “Field” is almost like a probability and what it’s best essence on space is, it applies on each kind of geometry whether it is analytic or theoretical this works.

1. First, we ask ourselves “what is space? “ and why it exists without any cause? This is something like “matter without space and space without matter” and we are in enigma where we want to find at least little journey of space, may be. However. including our recent theories we are not sure whether we rely on probability or on some different kind of experiment which still stood like mountain but without any base. But probability will definitely solve our biggest mystery that resides in universe and also for universe that dwells in uncertain space.
2. For an excerpt, we have Dark Matter but we are unable to know why this is indispensable for “Primordial Atom” (Universe’s beginning Cause, if it is) ? Existence is more important than solution” because, if we are unable to know the existence of universe then our thoughts become limited and we are in chaos world without left any imaginative perception. Probability, however is a best way to define the existence of every “Field” whether this is in form of geometrical space or in quantum space. “Field” in the sense, it describes how Universal laws are same and hence there is no individual laws and principles. Generally, “Fields” work with every laws and there is no individuality. Best excerpt of “Field” is related with “Geometry of Space” (not include Callabi-Yau Manifold) but is a different concept and manifests how space itself is a “Field” and is a medium (not, electromagnetic but something different).

I will discuss this “Weird Field” in my next post. Thanks.

Original Source: https://cosmologyexegesis.quora.com/What-is-time-5

MAX BORN

# Max Born was a German Physicist and Mathematician who has a vital role in developing “Quantum Mechanics and born on 11 December 1882, Germany.

# His contribution was also in “Solid State Physics” and “Optics” and won a Nobel Prize in 1954 for his contribution in Physics.

# He is best known for his work for “Statistical Interpretation of the Wave Function”.

# In 1925, he and Werner Heisenberg formulates a “Matrix Mechanics” a representation of “Quantum Mechanics”. In the following year, he formulated standard interpretation of “Probability Density Function” and “Schrodinger Equation” for which he received a Nobel Prize in 1954.

# He became a Fellow of Royal Society London in 1973.

# He died on 5 January 1970 but consider a evergreen physicist of all time who contributed his work for nature.

RISE OF A QUANTUM WORLD

#Quantum World that is “Quantum Mechanics” also known as “Quantum Physics” or “Quantum Theory”.

# In Classical Physics, quantum mechanics only validated to macroscopic levels.

# But quantum mechanics differs from classical physics, according to quantum mechanics energy, momentum and restricted to other discrete values.

# Quantum mechanics rose with the rose of a Max Plancks solution for “Black Body Radiation” and Albert Einstein’s “Photoelectric Effect”. Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and Erwin Schrodinger also profoundly conceived the notable contribution in quantum mechanics.

The first equation is a Schrodinger’s equation and second one is Klein-Gordon equations.

# According to Planck’s equation each energy element is proportional to the frequency.

i.e.

where h is Planck’s constant and E is the energy, f is frequency.

# There are various methods and process those define quantum mechanics and it also give rise to an many world interpretation (that is our universe is not alone and have one of the few in many universes).

WHY EXISTENCE NEEDS PARTICLES?

# In physical Science,  particles are consider to be small localized objects which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as in volume or mass..

# In a large number of particles realm we have “Statistical System” to count the particles.

# Particles are in various forms and are present everywhere such as in solid, liquid and gases. When we talk about their sizes according with others then we have quantum mechanics microscopic particles macroscopic particles and even more smaller level particles.

# There are composition of a particles known as “Composite Particles” that are made with other particles. We have elementary particles such as quarks, leptons, mesons, muons gluons and many others..

# Particles build up almost everything into the entire universe and hence in space also.

# But why existence needs particles and why there is any need of particles as these are infinite or something still beyond these particles hovering a darkness on some aspects of nature?

TIME TRAVEL

# Time Traveling concept first appeared in H.G.Wells Novel “Time Machine” in 1895.

# In General Relativity and Special Relativity, it is possible to TRAVEL FORWARD IN TIME.

# In Quantum Mechanics and Wormholes one can travel through time (i.e. medium) and known as Einstein -Rosen Bridge.

# In Special and General Relativity, geometries of spacetime or motions in space allow time travel in past and in future.

# In Godel Spacetime, it is  something like a closed timelike curve.

# Wormholes are the other method for time traveling but still faces many problem with their “Time Dilation”, “Exotic Matter” and “Energy based problems”.

# Communication system does not work due to the slower in time and hence we are facing a problem in “Quantum Teleportation”.

# Time traveling concept seems to be different and hypothetical but still is in a field of Laws of nature.