## Century of Higgs Boson

Nothing in this universe which don’t have its own mass. Yes, this is something like an identity proof of someone who assist one to give his / her identity whether in organization or in department. We have peculiar identities of persons and then we recognize every person’s real identity (except we know few of our acquaintance). Similarly, when we talk on the behavior of particles we are not sure which particles have mass and why it has mass? This seems a weird reality like a statistical calculation of particles (In Maxwell-Boltzmann Statistics) but this sounds good if we will move further to determine and understand about particles realm.

As we all know, Higgs Boson is an elementary particle in a standard model of particle physics (Higgs is named after Peter Ware Higgs, English Theoretical Physicist and Boson is named after Satyendra Nath Bose, Indian Theoretical Physicist) In fact, Bose was also renowned for his work with Legendary Physicist Albert Einstein and what we now termed as Bose-Einstein Statistics to find the two classes of particles, and the other are fermions. After this incredible research on statistical particles, Paul Dirac (English Physicist and one of the most influential contributor in quantum mechanics and quantum thermodynamic) coined the term “Boson”.

Satyendra Nath Bose:

Let’s first talk about the contribution of S.N Bose. His was a remarkably astounding as he along with Albert Einstein in early 1920’s gave the foundation of Bose-Einstein Statistics. But what is Bose-Einstein Statistics? Let me introduce you with this concept. Bose-Einstein Statistics is one of the two possible ways in which collection of a  non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy state, a thermodynamic equilibrium (A state where there is no macroscopic flow of energy)

(Note: Flow here is a mathematical term which means particles are in motion in a fluid)

In Bose-Einstein Statistics, they do not obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle and hence particles have integer value of spin and named Boson after being correctly describe their statistics.

((Remember: Pauli Exclusion Principle tells that it is impossible for an electron of a poly-electron atom have the same values of the four quantum numbers that are “Principal Quantum Numbers”, Magnetic Quantum Numbers”, Angular Quantum Numbers and Spin Quantum Number”. All are denoted as n, m (l), l and m(s) [m(l) and m(s), l and s both are the subscript of m]))\

Fig.1:

The above diagram illustrates the disordered system in which slow particles mix together. As you see in first box / container. The barrier divides the two different chamber A and B, but when barrier is certainly break than particles inside A transcends through this barrier and mix along with particles inside chamber B and also particles in chamber B mix along with particle inside chamber A.

This shows the Thermodynamic Kinetic Theory of Statistical Mechanics and then Bose-Einstein gave the Condensation theory. This condensation theory is called Bose-Einstein Condensate of photons. See below diagram for explicit information about BEC (Bose-Einstein Condensation):

Fig.2:

The above is the diagram that manifests how Bose-Einstein Condensation works at “Absolute Zero” (A point where a fundamental particles of nature have minimal vibrational motion, retaining only quantum mechanical “Zero-point energy” where motion of particles are genuine.

(Note: Zero-point energy is a lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system have).

Peter Ware Higgs:

However, this is a Bose’s realm where he played with particles world and also their complex classifications. But when we talk about Peter Ware Higgs, he is renowned for his theory on broken symmetry in electroweak theory (the unified the two of the four fundamental particles that are electromagnetism and weak interaction) could explain the origin of a mass of elementary particles and later describe as W and Z Bosons in peculiar. But, when we talk about symmetry we are curious to know what is broken symmetry? Broken symmetry is an infinitesimally a fluctuation acting on a system crossing a critical point (that is two ends of an equilibrium ends) decided a system fate by determining which bifurcation is taken. Interestingly, we cannot observe this fluctuations and hence this process is called fluctuation breaking (See the below diagram):

Fig.3:

Symmetry breaking is very useful to play its role in symmetry pattern. After this symmetry breaking theory,  it’s named alter “Higgs Mechanism”. On 14 March 2013, the newly particle but tentatively confirmed a + parity and a zero spin. However, Higgs mechanism is accepted as an important ingredient for Standard Model of particle physics (where without any particles with no mass). Then this journey begins and what we today called a CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva midst Franco-Swiss Border) first suspected to be exist in 1960’s where collision of the protons as seen in diagram below:

Fig.4:

In this experiment, researcher endeavor to find an answer of the complex question and that is “Why fundamental particles have mass?” But its little excerpt was seen in 2012, when CERN researchers announces a discovery of a new particles and what they called “Higgs Boson” (where some predicted this is God particle). But how one can understand the Higgs Boson Fields or mass? Let’s see in the diagram below:

Fig.5:

Image Source: Google Images  (Note: Only for scientific purpose only)

The above diagram manifests how Higgs mass describes the “Field” and this “Field” is responsible for mass. Suppose some people organize a party where men and women both are invited. On that day, when all people are enjoying a party suddenly a beautiful lady enters in the party hall and some men get attracted to this lady and surround her where some are still have a little glimpse of this lady. Here one notice when lady enters in room she was alone and no body with her but when attracted by some men she gets a company. Suppose she is a particle and other men are “Field” and when particles get in touch with this “Field” it receives mass depends on “Field”. Though, I am not sure on this excerpt and also on Higgs Mass because it seems this is a little journey for particles not forever.

Higgs Boson is a living exemplary of modern modal of standard physics that shows how one understand universe not in a physical behavior but in a quantum behavior (Still uncertainty retains its glory). Hope, this experiment will lead us to that future that already exist without harming or dis the prescribed fundamental laws and principles.

For further quotes and Information on Space time.

https://sunnyspace2.blogspot.in

https://creativespacetime.tumblr.com

## Space

When there was nothing,

absolute “zero” what was the future of space that we all are

observing now? Present world is completely depend on technology and we all are

adhering it’s crazy tail. But, when we become our own creator especially from

our mind, we are too curious to know about the existence of space. First, we

heard what is universe and after this we think why does existence of universe

is indispensable, may be this one does not work here (especially on this

article) but literally assist us to solve some logical questions.

space and it’s existence. Space is not only a three dimensional entity where

events, and some other activities occur but also is responsible for

transformation of energy, electricity, gravitational waves, particles and some

other kind of entities. It (space) really compel us to think what is space and

why does it exist? In present world, we are unable to find it’s mystery as some

physicists say this is a “False Vacuum” and some say this is all

about “Virtual Particles”. False Vacuum does not mean space is

nothing but it applies on low minimum energy and hence is not stable. This is

something like two particles that collide with each other and then annihilate

each other without producing / synthesizing third one (Like two sides of a

triangle that is equal to the third one).

Energy in this case is higher

in false vacuum or we say in ground state.

(Note: Ground state here is lowest energy state and is also called zero

point energy)

Although, we have another case

that are “virtual particles”. What are those particles? These

particles are same characteristic like ordinary particles and hence limited by

uncertainty principle. Virtual Particles do not carry same mass and are similar

like real particles and always adhering the conservation law of momentum and

energy.

These two cases are

responsible for existence of space (what we called dark space and also we call

it a “dark energy”). Even some physicists believe dark energy is

responsible for existence of universe and everything that contain in it. But,

here we are not sure whether space is infinite or finite.

Perspective from our mind’s

perception, it looks dark everywhere and we all are uncertain about it’s

existence. Here, my motive is not different than other’s theoretical work but

is similar like some kind of pragmatic solutions of puzzling concept.

In the world of technology, we

are still struggling with the concept of existence of space and hence we are

not sure whether we have space for existence or not. But if space exists and we

relate it with our mind’s perception then we have infinite spaces instead of

one (Like super string theory of infinite universes).